Cilt: 2012/1
Sayı: 1
Makale Eklenme Tarihi: 25.06.2012
Okunma Sayısı: 8
Makale Özeti: Türkçe ve Almancada Apposition (açıklayıcı, unvan) dediğimiz ve bir ad ile onu açıklayan ikinci bir addan oluşan sözcük öbekleri vardır. Türkçe dilbilgisi kitapları bu kavramdan farklı şeyler anlamaktadır. Konunun Türkçe dilbilgisi kitapların da farklı şekillerde ele alınması bu konunun Almanca-Türkçe karşılaştırmalı bir şekilde irdelenmesi gerektiğini göstermektedir. Apposition diye nitelenen yapılar Almanca eğitimi açısından çok önemli olduğu ve önemli biçemsel işlevler yerine getirdiği halde bu yapılar yabancı dil eğitimi derslerinde ihmal edilmektedir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada hem Türkçe ve Almancadaki ilgili yapılar karşılaştırılmış, hem de Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi Alman Dili Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı’ndan 24 öğrenciyle bir uygulama yapılarak durum tespiti yapılmış ve çözüme yönelik alıştırma türleri önerilmiştir.
Alternatif Dilde Özet: Turkish and German grammar books include word parts combined with secondary nouns. We call these, which exemplify the noun, as apposition. Turkish grammar books draw different conclusions from the term Apposition and it shows that it needs to be especially explicated. The apposition can be seen as resumption of same meaningful lexical units considered as a stylistic device providing a context-dependent credibility of expression, coherence, clarity, variation, adequacy and facility. We use many appositions consciously or unconsciously both in speaking and written language. When we compare the frequency of apposition usage with the relative clause, displaying the same function, apposition is surprisingly higher. According to statistical data, in every 100 sentences chosen from any text, there are about 30 appositions. Nevertheless, the apposition receives little attention especially in grammar teaching books, sometimes it even does not. Although it’s rare occurrence in the grammar books, we constantly encounter their syntactic, semantic and pragmatic dimensions in various types of texts. The reason why the Apposition in grammar teaching has received little discussionmight be a topic of other studies and we are not going to deal with this issue here. The purpose of this particular study is to reveal how much the Apposition is known as a grammatical category by our students and what can be done to increase the related awareness in this regard. Within the scope of this research study, the relative clauses present significance, as they are the most preferred and used ones among the Turkish learners who learn German as a foreign language. Due to their morphosyntactic structural difficulties, they are often memorized more than other forms of sentence. Moreover, they require more effort and in spoken form, they are economically impractical. However, it does not mean that theyarenotused or exaggerated in their usage because each mode of expression has its own value. This means that we see apposition rather than a stylistic device providing variation both in spoken and written language. The structures called as apposition is crucial for German language teaching. These structures, which serve structural functions, are however disregarded yet. Therefore, in this study, initially, the appositional structures in Turkish and German are compared and then an empirical analysis was conducted by an implementation in the course of Comparative Grammar, with 24 second year students of German Language Teaching Department at the Faculty of Education in the University Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart. In addition to the comments on findings, we also suggested various exercise types focusing on the solution offering ways on how it is possible to work through apposition in German language teaching.As a result we have found out that, the apposition in German has different contents from Turkish. We have also found out that nominal syntax, which is not thought like the ones in German grammar, are referred to as apposition in Turkish language. Such conceptual changes are especially seen in broad apposition, which is usually used in both languages with commas, rarely with dashes and parentheses and with colon especially in Turkish. The close apposition behaves partially different in German and Turkish. In German, close appositions, which are combined with a title / salutation form / function / class / profession / or relative name can be prefixed: Staatsanwalt Müller vs. der Staatsanwalt Müller. The non-underlined part is always the apposition and the underlined part, however, is the root word referring to the apposition. The difference in meaning between words and reference makes opposition about definite and indefinite or article and null article and those are seen as a unit of relevant noun phrase. It is impossible to combine both parts with an article. These morphosyntactic findings, which are built with the declination, don’t play a significant role in Turkish appositional forms. Although Nida öğretmen and öğretmen Nida are semantically different from each other, Turkish grammar books rarely mention the difference. Since Turkish is an agglutinative language, the lack of article category makes it difficult between the differences of meaning in both syntactic forms. In fact it can make the rules of declination in Turkish validity, because they – the declination- can be generalized in Turkish due to their semantic motivation and in other languages. The declined word is the reference word and the other is the apposition. Examples in Turkish grammar reveal that, both morphological and syntactic criteria are ignored and the meaning of lexeme (profession, title or kinship term) is seen as a unique way out and these lexemes are not the ones as if they can never be seen as a reference word of other appositions.The most important difference between Turkish and German appositions is that, while the appositions like ordinal numbers are used after the names of rulers in German, it is used before names in Turkish and this situation makes it difficult to learn for the student. We assume that, the learner overcomes learning problems through conscious creation of appositional exercises and they can learn to use structures of apposition as a stylistic device.

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